Author | Paul Taylor | |

ISBN-10 | 0521631076 | |

Release | 1999-05-13 | |

Pages | 572 | |

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Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction of the objects of twentieth-century mathematics. Although it is mainly concerned with a framework essentially equivalent to intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel logic, the book looks forward to more subtle bases in categorical type theory and the machine representation of mathematics. Each idea is illustrated by wide-ranging examples, and followed critically along its natural path, transcending disciplinary boundaries between universal algebra, type theory, category theory, set theory, sheaf theory, topology and programming. Students and teachers of computing, mathematics and philosophy will find this book both readable and of lasting value as a reference work. |

Author | Giandomenico Sica | |

ISBN-10 | 9788876990144 | |

Release | 2005-01-01 | |

Pages | 351 | |

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Essays on the Foundations of Mathematics and Logic has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Essays on the Foundations of Mathematics and Logic also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Essays on the Foundations of Mathematics and Logic book for free. |

Author | Kenneth Kunen | |

ISBN-10 | 1904987141 | |

Release | 2009 | |

Pages | 251 | |

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Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth. |

Author | John P. Mayberry | |

ISBN-10 | 0521770343 | |

Release | 2000 | |

Pages | 424 | |

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This 2001 book will appeal to mathematicians and philosophers interested in the foundations of mathematics. |

Author | L.A. Harrington | |

ISBN-10 | 0080960405 | |

Release | 1985-11-01 | |

Pages | 407 | |

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This volume discusses various aspects of Harvey Friedman's research in the foundations of mathematics over the past fifteen years. It should appeal to a wide audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, and mathematically oriented philosophers. |

Author | Raymond L. Wilder | |

ISBN-10 | 9780486276205 | |

Release | 2013-09-26 | |

Pages | 352 | |

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This classic undergraduate text acquaints students with the fundamental concepts and methods of mathematics. In addition to introducing many historical figures from the 18th through the mid-20th centuries, it examines the axiomatic method, set theory, infinite sets, groups, intuitionism, formal systems, mathematical logic, and other topics. 1965 second edition. |

Author | William S. Hatcher | |

ISBN-10 | 9781483189635 | |

Release | 2014-05-09 | |

Pages | 330 | |

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The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and the other, in a "natural deduction" style, for presenting detailed formal proofs. A somewhat novel feature of this framework is a full semantic and syntactic treatment of variable-binding term operators as primitive symbols of logic. Subsequent chapters focus on the origin of modern foundational studies; Gottlob Frege's formal system intended to serve as a foundation for mathematics and its paradoxes; the theory of types; and the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. David Hilbert's program and Kurt Gödel's incompleteness theorems are also examined, along with the foundational systems of W. V. Quine and the relevance of categorical algebra for foundations. This monograph will be of interest to students, teachers, practitioners, and researchers in mathematics. |

Author | Ian Stewart | |

ISBN-10 | 9780198706434 | |

Release | 2015-03-05 | |

Pages | 432 | |

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The transition from school mathematics to university mathematics is seldom straightforward. Students are faced with a disconnect between the algorithmic and informal attitude to mathematics at school, versus a new emphasis on proof, based on logic, and a more abstract development of general concepts, based on set theory. The authors have many years' experience of the potential difficulties involved, through teaching first-year undergraduates and researching the ways in which students and mathematicians think. The book explains the motivation behind abstract foundational material based on students' experiences of school mathematics, and explicitly suggests ways students can make sense of formal ideas. This second edition takes a significant step forward by not only making the transition from intuitive to formal methods, but also by reversing the process- using structure theorems to prove that formal systems have visual and symbolic interpretations that enhance mathematical thinking. This is exemplified by a new chapter on the theory of groups. While the first edition extended counting to infinite cardinal numbers, the second also extends the real numbers rigorously to larger ordered fields. This links intuitive ideas in calculus to the formal epsilon-delta methods of analysis. The approach here is not the conventional one of 'nonstandard analysis', but a simpler, graphically based treatment which makes the notion of an infinitesimal natural and straightforward. This allows a further vision of the wider world of mathematical thinking in which formal definitions and proof lead to amazing new ways of defining, proving, visualising and symbolising mathematics beyond previous expectations. |

Author | Stephen Pollard | |

ISBN-10 | 9048194164 | |

Release | 2010-08-03 | |

Pages | 248 | |

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Moritz Pasch (1843-1930) is justly celebrated as a key figure in the history of axiomatic geometry. Less well known are his contributions to other areas of foundational research. This volume features English translations of 14 papers Pasch published in the decade 1917-1926. In them, Pasch argues that geometry and, more surprisingly, number theory are branches of empirical science; he provides axioms for the combinatorial reasoning essential to Hilbert’s program of consistency proofs; he explores "implicit definition" (a generalization of definition by abstraction) and indicates how this technique yields an "empiricist" reconstruction of set theory; he argues that we cannot fully understand the logical structure of mathematics without clearly distinguishing between decidable and undecidable properties; he offers a rare glimpse into the mind of a master of axiomatics, surveying in detail the thought experiments he employed as he struggled to identify fundamental mathematical principles; and much more. This volume will: Give English speakers access to an important body of work from a turbulent and pivotal period in the history of mathematics, help us look beyond the familiar triad of formalism, intuitionism, and logicism, show how deeply we can see with the help of a guide determined to present fundamental mathematical ideas in ways that match our human capacities, will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in logic and the foundations of mathematics. |

Author | Thomas Q. Sibley | |

ISBN-10 | 9780470085011 | |

Release | 2008-04-07 | |

Pages | 392 | |

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Finally there's an easy-to-follow book that will help readers succeed in the art of proving theorems. Sibley not only conveys the spirit of mathematics but also uncovers the skills required to succeed. Key definitions are introduced while readers are encouraged to develop an intuition about these concepts and practice using them in problems. With this approach, they'll gain a strong understanding of the mathematical language as they discover how to apply it in order to find proofs. |

Author | Pavel Pudlák | |

ISBN-10 | 9783319001197 | |

Release | 2013-04-22 | |

Pages | 695 | |

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The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory. |

Author | C. K. Raju | |

ISBN-10 | 8131708713 | |

Release | 2007 | |

Pages | 477 | |

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The Volume Examines, In Depth, The Implications Of Indian History And Philosophy For Contemporary Mathematics And Science. The Conclusions Challenge Current Formal Mathematics And Its Basis In The Western Dogma That Deduction Is Infallible (Or That It Is Less Fallible Than Induction). The Development Of The Calculus In India, Over A Thousand Years, Is Exhaustively Documented In This Volume, Along With Novel Insights, And Is Related To The Key Sources Of Wealth-Monsoon-Dependent Agriculture And Navigation Required For Overseas Trade - And The Corresponding Requirement Of Timekeeping. Refecting The Usual Double Standard Of Evidence Used To Construct Eurocentric History, A Single, New Standard Of Evidence For Transmissions Is Proposed. Using This, It Is Pointed Out That Jesuits In Cochin, Following The Toledo Model Of Translation, Had Long-Term Opportunity To Transmit Indian Calculus Texts To Europe. The European Navigational Problem Of Determining Latitude, Longitude, And Loxodromes, And The 1582 Gregorian Calendar-Reform, Provided Ample Motivation. The Mathematics In These Earlier Indian Texts Suddenly Starts Appearing In European Works From The Mid-16Th Century Onwards, Providing Compelling Circumstantial Evidence. While The Calculus In India Had Valid Pramana, This Differed From Western Notions Of Proof, And The Indian (Algorismus) Notion Of Number Differed From The European (Abacus) Notion. Hence, Like Their Earlier Difficulties With The Algorismus, Europeans Had Difficulties In Understanding The Calculus, Which, Like Computer Technology, Enhanced The Ability To Calculate, Albeit In A Way Regarded As Epistemologically Insecure. Present-Day Difficulties In Learning Mathematics Are Related, Via Phylogeny Is Ontogeny , To These Historical Difficulties In Assimilating Imported Mathematics. An Appendix Takes Up Further Contemporary Implications Of The New Philosophy Of Mathematics For The Extension Of The Calculus, Which Is Needed To Handle The Infinities Arising In The Study Of Shock Waves And The Renormalization Problem Of Quantum Field Theory. |

Author | László Kalmár | |

ISBN-10 | UCSD:31822012627337 | |

Release | 1965 | |

Pages | 317 | |

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Colloquium on the foundations of mathematics mathematical machines and their applications has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Colloquium on the foundations of mathematics mathematical machines and their applications also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Colloquium on the foundations of mathematics mathematical machines and their applications book for free. |

Author | Ludwig Wittgenstein | |

ISBN-10 | 0226904261 | |

Release | 1989-10-15 | |

Pages | 300 | |

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For several terms at Cambridge in 1939, Ludwig Wittgenstein lectured on the philosophical foundations of mathematics. A lecture class taught by Wittgenstein, however, hardly resembled a lecture. He sat on a chair in the middle of the room, with some of the class sitting in chairs, some on the floor. He never used notes. He paused frequently, sometimes for several minutes, while he puzzled out a problem. He often asked his listeners questions and reacted to their replies. Many meetings were largely conversation. These lectures were attended by, among others, D. A. T. Gasking, J. N. Findlay, Stephen Toulmin, Alan Turing, G. H. von Wright, R. G. Bosanquet, Norman Malcolm, Rush Rhees, and Yorick Smythies. Notes taken by these last four are the basis for the thirty-one lectures in this book. The lectures covered such topics as the nature of mathematics, the distinctions between mathematical and everyday languages, the truth of mathematical propositions, consistency and contradiction in formal systems, the logicism of Frege and Russell, Platonism, identity, negation, and necessary truth. The mathematical examples used are nearly always elementary. |

Author | Mathieu Marion | |

ISBN-10 | 019823516X | |

Release | 1998 | |

Pages | 260 | |

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Mathieu Marion offers a careful, historically informed study of Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics. This area of his work has frequently been undervalued by Wittgenstein specialists and philosophers of mathematics alike; but the surprising fact that he wrote more on this subject than any other indicates its centrality in his thought. Marion traces the development of Wittgenstein's thinking from the 1920s through to the 1950s, in the context of themathematical and philosophical work of the times, to make coherent sense of ideas that have too often been misunderstood because they have been presented in a disjointed and incomplete way. He shows that study of Wittgenstein's writings on mathematics is essential to a proper understanding of his philosophy,and also that it can do much to illuminate current debates about the foundations of mathematics. |

Author | William Bragg Ewald | |

ISBN-10 | 0191523097 | |

Release | 2005-04-21 | |

Pages | 678 | |

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Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is widely taken to be the starting point of the modern period of mathematics while David Hilbert was the last great mainstream mathematician to pursue important nineteenth cnetury ideas. This two-volume work provides an overview of this important era of mathematical research through a carefully chosen selection of articles. They provide an insight into the foundations of each of the main branches of mathematics—algebra, geometry, number theory, analysis, logic and set theory—with narratives to show how they are linked. Classic works by Bolzano, Riemann, Hamilton, Dedekind, and Poincare are reproduced in reliable translations and many selections from writers such as Gauss, Cantor, Kronecker and Zermelo are here translated for the first time. The collection is an invaluable source for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the foundation of modern mathematics. |

Author | Paul Carus | |

ISBN-10 | 9781596050068 | |

Release | 2004-05-15 | |

Pages | 148 | |

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In this brief treatise, Carus traces the roots of his belief in the philosophical basis for mathematics and analyzes that basis after a historical overview of Euclid and his successors. He then examines his base argument and proceeds to a study of different geometrical systems, all pulled together in his epilogue, which examines matter, mathematics, and, ultimately, the nature of God. |