Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences

Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences Author F. Hallyn
ISBN-10 9789401594424
Release 2013-03-14
Pages 244
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This collection of papers contains historical case studies, systematic contributions of a general nature, and applications to specific sciences. The bibliographies of the contributions contain references to all central items from the traditions that are relevant today. While providing access to contemporary views on the issue, the papers illustrate the wide variety of functions of metaphors and analogies, as well as the many connections between the study of some of these functions and other subjects and disciplines.



Metaphor and Analogy in Science Education

Metaphor and Analogy in Science Education Author Peter J. Aubusson
ISBN-10 9781402038303
Release 2006-06-28
Pages 210
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Years ago a primary teacher told me about a great series of lessons she had just had. The class had visited rock pools on the seashore, and when she asked them about their observations they talked about: it was like a factory, it was like a church, it was like a garden, it was like our kitchen at breakfast time, etc. Each student’s analogy could be elaborated, and these analogies provided her with strongly engaged students and a great platform from which to develop their learning about biological diversity and interdependence. In everyday life we learn so many things by comparing and contrasting. The use of analogies and metaphors is important in science itself and their use in teaching science seems a natural extension, but textbooks with their own sparse logic, do not help teachers or students. David Ausubel in the 1960s had advocated the use of ‘advance organisers’ to introduce the teaching of conceptual material in the sciences, and some of these had an analogical character. However, research on the value of this idea was cumbersome and indecisive, and it ceased after just a few studies. In the 1980s research into children’s conceptions of scientific phenomena and concepts really burgeoned, and it was soon followed by an exploration of a new set of pedagogical strategies that recognised a student in a science class is much more than a tabula rasa.



The role of analogy model and metaphor in science

The role of analogy  model  and metaphor in science Author W. H. Leatherdale
ISBN-10 0720480221
Release 1974
Pages 276
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The role of analogy model and metaphor in science has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The role of analogy model and metaphor in science also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The role of analogy model and metaphor in science book for free.



Computation for Metaphors Analogy and Agents

Computation for Metaphors  Analogy  and Agents Author Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
ISBN-10 9783540488347
Release 2003-06-26
Pages 398
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This volume brings together the work of researchers from various disciplines where aspects of descriptive, mathematical, computational or design knowledge concerning metaphor and analogy, especially in the context of agents, have emerged. The book originates from an international workshop on Computation for Metaphors, Analogy, and Agents (CMAA), held in Aizu, Japan in April 1998. The 19 carefully reviewed and revised papers presented together with an introduction by the volume editor are organized into sections on Metaphor and Blending, Embodiment, Interaction, Imitation, Situated Mapping in Space and Time, Algebraic Engineering: Respecting Structure, and a Sea-Change in Viewpoints.



Metaphor and Thought

Metaphor and Thought Author Andrew Ortony
ISBN-10 0521405610
Release 1993-11-26
Pages 678
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Metaphor and Thought reflects the surge of interest in and research into the nature and function of metaphor in language and thought. Philosophers, psychologists, linguists, and educators raise serious questions about the viability of the traditional distinction between the literal and the metaphorical, discussing problems ranging from the definition of metaphor to its role in language acquistion, learning, scientific thinking, and the creation of social policy. In the second edition, the contributors have updated their original essays to reflect changes in their fields. The volume also includes six new chapters that present important and influential new ideas about metaphor that have appeared in such fields as the philosophy of language and the philosophy of science, linguistics, cognitive and clinical psychology, education, and artificial intelligence. The book will serve as an excellent graduate-level textbook in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence.



Trope Densities Analogy Clusters and Metaphor Types

Trope Densities  Analogy Clusters  and Metaphor Types Author Mary Freeman
ISBN-10 OCLC:32613402
Release 1994
Pages 436
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Trope Densities Analogy Clusters and Metaphor Types has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Trope Densities Analogy Clusters and Metaphor Types also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Trope Densities Analogy Clusters and Metaphor Types book for free.



Knowledge Representation and Metaphor

Knowledge Representation and Metaphor Author E. Cornell Way
ISBN-10 9789401579414
Release 2013-03-14
Pages 272
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This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychol ogy through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The problems posed by metaphor and analogy are among the most challenging that confront the field of knowledge representation. In this study, Eileen Way has drawn upon the combined resources of philosophy, psychology, and computer science in developing a systematic and illuminating theoretical framework for understanding metaphors and analogies. While her work provides solutions to difficult problems of knowledge representation, it goes much further by investigating some of the most important philosophical assumptions that prevail within artificial intelligence today. By exposing the limitations inherent in the assumption that languages are both literal and truth-functional, she has advanced our grasp of the nature of language itself. J.R.F.



Metaphors Analogies

Metaphors   Analogies Author Rick Wormeli
ISBN-10 9781571107589
Release 2009
Pages 174
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Metaphors show students how to make connections between the concrete and the abstract, prior knowledge and unfamiliar concepts, and language and image. But teachers must learn how to use metaphors and analogies strategically and for specific purposes, helping students discover and deconstruct effective comparisons. Metaphors & Analogies is filled with provocative illustrations of metaphors in action and practical tips.



The Gendered Cyborg

The Gendered Cyborg Author Fiona Hovenden
ISBN-10 9781136355011
Release 2013-09-13
Pages 344
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The Gendered Cyborg explores the relationship between representation, technoscience and gender, through the metaphor of the cyborg. The contributors argue that the figure of the cyborg offers ways of thinking about the relationship between culture and technology, people and machines which disrupt the power of science to enfore the categories through which we think about being human: male and female. Taking inspiration from Donna Haraway's groundbreaking Manifesto for Cyborgs, the articles consider how the cyborg has been used in cultural representation from reproductive technology to sci-fi, and question whether the cyborg is as powerful a symbol as is often claimed. The different sections of the reader explore: * the construction of gender categories through science * the interraction of technoscience and gender in contemporary science fiction film such as Bladerunner and the Alien series * debates around modern reproductive technology such as ultrasound scans and IVF, assessing their benefits and constraints for women * issues relating to artificial intelligence and the internet.



The Logic of Metaphor

The Logic of Metaphor Author Eric Steinhart
ISBN-10 9789401596541
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 256
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1. Metaphors and Logic Metaphors are among the most vigorous offspring of the creative mind; but their vitality springs from the fact that they are logical organisms in the ecology of l- guage. I aim to use logical techniques to analyze the meanings of metaphors. My goal here is to show how contemporary formal semantics can be extended to handle metaphorical utterances. What distinguishes this work is that it focuses intensely on the logical aspects of metaphors. I stress the role of logic in the generation and int- pretation of metaphors. While I don't presuppose any formal training in logic, some familiarity with philosophical logic (the propositional calculus and the predicate c- culus) is helpful. Since my theory makes great use of the notion of structure, I refer to it as the structural theory of m etaphor (STM). STM is a semant ic theory of m etaphor : if STM is correct, then metaphors are cognitively meaningful and are n- trivially logically linked with truth. I aim to extend possible worlds semantics to handle metaphors. I'll argue that some sentences in natural languages like English have multiple meanings: "Juliet is the sun" has (at least) two meanings: the literal meaning "(Juliet is the sunkIT" and the metaphorical meaning "(Juliet is the sun)MET". Each meaning is a function from (possible) worlds to truth-values. I deny that these functions are identical; I deny that the metaphorical function is necessarily false or necessarily true.



Psychology of Science

Psychology of Science Author Robert W. Proctor
ISBN-10 9780199753628
Release 2012-07-12
Pages 523
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Symposium held at Purdue Univ. in June 4-5, 2010.



Science Teaching

Science Teaching Author Michael R. Matthews
ISBN-10 9781317796152
Release 2015-12-22
Pages 256
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Science Teaching argues that science teaching and science teacher education can be improved if teachers know something of the history and philosophy of science and if these topics are included in the science curriculum. The history and philosophy of science have important roles in many of the theoretical issues that science educators need to address: what constitutes an appropriate science curriculum for all students; how science should be taught in traditional cultures; how scientific literacy can be promoted; and the conflict which can occur between science curriculum and deep-seated religious or cultural values and knowledge. Outlining the history of liberal approaches to the teaching of science, Michael Matthews elaborates contemporary curriculum developments that explicitly address questions about the nature and the history of science. He provides examples of classroom teaching and develops useful arguments on constructivism, multicultural science education and teacher education.



Motives for Metaphor in Scientific and Technical Communication

Motives for Metaphor in Scientific and Technical Communication Author Timothy D Giles
ISBN-10 9781351842884
Release 2017-03-02
Pages 184
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Examination of the work of scientific icons-Newton, Descartes, and others-reveals the metaphors and analogies that directed their research and explain their discoveries. Today, scientists tend to balk at the idea of their writing as rhetorical, much less metaphorical. How did this schism over metaphor occur in the scientific community? To establish that scientists should use metaphors to explain science to the public and need to be conscious of how metaphor can be useful to their research, this book examines the controversy over cloning and the lack of a metaphor to explain it to a public fearful of science's power.The disjunction between metaphor and science is traced to the dispensation of the Solar System Analogy in favor of a mathematical model. Arguing that mathematics is metaphorical, the author supports the idea of all language as metaphorical-unlike many rhetoricians and philosophers of science who have proclaimed all language as metaphorical but have allowed a distinction between a metaphorical use of language and a literal use.For technical communication pedagogy, the implications of this study suggest foregrounding metaphor in textbooks and in the classroom. Though many technical communication textbooks recommend metaphor as a rhetorical strategy, some advise avoiding it, and those that recommend it usually do so in a paragraph or two, with little direction for students on how to recognize metaphors or to how use them. This book provides the impetus for a change in the pedagogical approach to metaphor as a rhetorical tool with epistemological significance.



The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science

The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science Author Peter Machamer
ISBN-10 9780470756522
Release 2008-04-15
Pages 360
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This volume presentsa definitive introduction to the core areas of philosophy of science.



The Racial Economy of Science

The  Racial  Economy of Science Author Sandra Harding
ISBN-10 0253115531
Release 1993-10-22
Pages 544
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"The classic and recent essays gathered here will challenge scholars in the natural sciences, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and women's studies to examine the role of racism in the construction and application of the sciences. Harding... has also created a useful text for diverse classroom settings." -- Library Journal "A rich lode of readily accessible thought on the nature and practice of science in society. Highly recommended." -- Choice "This is an excellent collection of essays that should prove useful in a wide range of STS courses." -- Science, Technology, and Society "... important and provocative... "Â -- The Women's Review of Books "The timeliness and utility of this large interdisciplinary reader on the relation of Western science to other cultures and to world history can hardly be overemphasized. It provides a tremendous resource for teaching and for research... "Â -- Ethics "Excellent." -- The Reader's Review "Sandra Harding is an intellectually fearless scholar. She has assembled a bold, impressive collection of essays to make a volume of illuminating power. This brilliantly edited book is essential reading for all who seek understanding of the multicultural debates of our age. Never has a book been more timely." -- Darlene Clark Hine These authors dispute science's legitimation of culturally approved definitions of race difference -- including craniology and the measurement of IQ, the notorious Tuskegee syphilis experiments, and the dependence of Third World research on First World agendas.



Introduction to Cognitive Cultural Studies

Introduction to Cognitive Cultural Studies Author Lisa Zunshine
ISBN-10 1421400286
Release 2010-10-01
Pages 400
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Contributors: Mary Thomas Crane, Nancy Easterlin, David Herman, Patrick Colm Hogan, Bruce McConachie, Alan Palmer, Alan Richardson, Ellen Spolsky, G. Gabrielle Starr, Blakey Vermeule, Lisa Zunshine



Aspects of Metaphor in Physics

Aspects of Metaphor in Physics Author Hanna Pulaczewska
ISBN-10 9783110915938
Release 1999-01-01
Pages 309
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For decades there has been awareness of the fact that the natural sciences and the language they use are not metaphor-free domains. This study draws together statements on this phenomenon made in a discourse context hitherto dominated by theoreticians and philosophers of science and points up new perspectives of an interdisciplinary nature discussed here primarily from the viewpoint of cognitive semantics. How do metaphors enter into a discourse with physics? To what extent are the methods used and the issues addressed in physics influenced by metaphors? How do the ubiquitous metaphors of everyday language help us to impose a structure on physics knowledge and express abstract ideas in concrete images? These and other related issues are discussed with reference to copious examples.